I am interested in an explanation of why the ships came and how they were destroyed in the first place. So far I can only guess that the robot/white honeycomb people were the race that make/ran/piloted the ships and they were transporting the different species for some reason..? Then there's the 'world destroyers' which fit in somewhere but with how easy they were defeated I don't see how they could have destroyed worlds, they had mechs but it only took a single bullet from run of the mill projectile weapons to kill them.
Spoilers learned from playing the game to explain some of the tv show stuff. Cutting in case it's explained later in the series, which is likely to be the case.
The Votanis Collective is/was an alliance of alien races from a single star system that fled en-masse after their system collided with another star. The robot/honeycomb people are the Indogene and created the huge arks you see arriving at Earth. They carried survivors from six of the species, with some of the Volge smuggled aboard by person/s unknown.
The Votans thought Earth was uninhabited but they arrived and found humanity everywhere, eventually negotiating a small settlement and working towards getting the remaining population on the arks out of hypersleep and settled on the planet.
Humanity being humanity, fighting broke out and the Pale Wars started, which you would have heard a little about on the show. The Pale Wars culminated in the arks being destroyed - nobody knows if it was a human or Votan at fault - and raining down debris across the planet. Some of that debris included terraforming technology that would have been used in a controlled manner but since it was just smashed into the ground, things went very wrong.
The Volge are a race of automatons and are hated by humans and Votan alike. But they're not any more advanced, just very militarily inclined. Getting the jump on them still gives you a huge advantage.
And just regular show spoilers...
The bioman Nolan fights in Datak's fight club was created to fight in the Pale Wars. Many of the weapons may look like standard Earth tech but a lot of it has been upgraded from the modern versions or enhanced with Votan tech. Most of the Volge took multiple shots to put down, except the one who copped a point blank shotgun blast in the back and some of the ones Nolan put down with his fancy pistol.
What ultimately did them in though was the huge blast from the sphere Nolan retrieved from the ark. Without that the Volge would ultimately have won as the tide was already turning in their favour.
"Wasabi is a sometimes food." - Elmo